Biostratigraphy and Paleoenvironments of the Productive Series and Adjacent Units, Kura Depression Area, Eastern Azerbaijan
- The executive companies: Geology Institute, Amoco
- The year of publication: February 1996
- Code: # 951033
- Volumes: total 1. Volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1
This report summarizes the results of a joint study involving paleontologists from the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences and Amoco EPTG Paleontology group. The project involved collecting and analyzing samples from the Productive Series and adjacent units at four localities in the Kura River drainage basin and the western Azerbaijan Peninsula. Results have been integrated with previously acquired data to produce a biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental synthesis for eastern Azerbaijan.
Biostratigraphic data generated in the course of this analysis were graphically correlated against Amoco C-Azeri composite standard to yield precise age interpretations for the Pontian through Absheron interval. These data are supplemented in places by osotopic age dates derived from our own collections and from previously published reports. Graphic correaltion results show that regional unconformities are developed at the Plio-Pleistocene contact (1.8 Ma;=Akchagyl- Apsheron boundary); at the contact between the Upper Productive Series and Akchagyl (4.3-2.6 Ma;= Seismic Horizon 1); at the base of the Pereriva Suite (5.3 Ma;=Seismic Horizon 2); at the base of the Productive Series (5.8-5.6 Ma;=Seismic Horizon 3); and within the middle Pontian (approx. 6.8-5.8 Ma;=Messinian Event). Moreover, intra-sequence biostratigraphic subdivisons are possible within the lower and upper portions of the Productive Series. The level of biostratigraphic resolution within the Productive Series is adequate to confirm or refute tenuous seismic and/or log correlations.
Paleoenvironmental interpretations indicate that the lower Pontion was fluviodeltaic. Middle and upper Pontian deposits accumulated inmore open-basin environments, 30- 50 m in depth, with stable paleosalinities of 15-18 ‰ . The overlying Lower Productive Series accumulated in progressively shallower and less saline waters. Deposition of the Kirmaky through NKG suites reflects the transiton from nearly marine conditions in the Pontian to closed-basin, low salinity, deltaic facies in the Upper Productive Series. By Sabunchi time, the Caspian Basin was completely isolated from the world ocean and supported an endemic biota. Water depths during Sabunchi-Surakhany deposition were extremely shallow (<5 m) and paleosalinities did not exceed 2‰. Palynomorhs recovered form the uppermost Productive Series are indicative of relatively wet climatic conditions. The Caspian Basin experienced a very brief marine incursion at the beginning of Akchagyl time. Quickly thereafter, the basin again became isolated with an endemic biota and paleosalinities in the range of 8-14 ‰ . Akchagylian palynomorphs indicate very arid conditons, consistent with the onset of worldwide glaciation.
1.0 Executive Summary
3.0 Babazanan (Paleo Locality 17891)
3.1 Locality Description3.2 Lithostratigraphy3.3 Sampling3.4 Biostratigraphy3.5 Paleoenvironments3.6 Isotopic Dating
4.0 Sundi (Paleo Locality 17893)
4.1 Locality Description4.2 Lithostratigraphy4.3 Sampling4.4 Biostratigraphy4.5 Paleoenvironments4.6 Isotopic Dating
5.0 Geylar Village (Paleo Locality 17892)
5.1 Locality Description5.2 Lithostratigraphy5.3 Sampling5.4 Biostratigraphy5.5 Paleoenvironments
6.0 Sumgayit Station (Paleo Locality 17894)
6.1 Locality Description6.2 Lithostratigraphy6.3 Sampling6.4 Biostratigraphy6.5 Paleoenvironments
7.0 Composite Standard
Hazard from Onshore Mud Volcanoes
- The executive companies: GIA / Azerbaijan International Oil Company (AIOC)
- The year of publication: June 1995
- Code: C-95-OPS-39
- Volumes: total 3
volumes with appendixes in same amount: 3
Eastern Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea accommodates 227 mud volcanoes. Between 1810 and 1995, 236 eruptions have been recorded on 67 mud volcanoes. The remaining 160 mud volcanoes are quescent, but not extint; an eruption could occur at any moment on any of them. Thus, the mud volcanop on Zenbil (Duvanni) Island was characterized by gentle gryphon-dome activity for over 150 years, until 1961 when the first eruption occurred, which was repeated in 1995. Before the 1964 eruptions of Airantekyan on signs of activity had been observed. Subsequent eruptions took place in 1969, 1980 and 1990. Therefore, eruptions of mud volcanoes whic are in a quiscent, or even inactive phase, as with earthquakes, cannot be precisely predicted.
Twelve onshore and 3 offshore (island) volcanoes along the coast were selected to act as representative (or standard) examples during the present work. The volcanoes selected are characterized by frequent and powerful eruptions, and therefore present the greatest hazard t the surrounding environment.
Results of field studies of 15 mud volcanoes, together with interpretations of aerial and satellite photographs, are presented in this study. The data obtained from mud volcanoes on the western margin of the South Caspian Basin have been synthesised and analyses, and used as the basis of an evaluation of the parameters of mud-volcanic activity.
One of the main aims of this work is to study possible hazards whih may arise in the area of active mud volcanoes. In order to achieve this, the characteristics of mud-volcano activity, the extent of mud-volcanoc breccia, the lenght of outflow tongues, the dimensions of fractures and crush-zones within the breccia, and the crush-zones within the breccia, and the aerial development of domes, salses and gryphons have been determined. Radiometric studies have baan undertaken to distinguish concealed fractures. The thermal field of mud volcanoes has also been studied. This has resulted resulted in an assessment of the hazard arising from paroxysmic eruptions of mud volcanoes, allowing for flows of mud-volcano breccia, fractures, crush zones and subsidence, together with powerful emissions of burining gas.
- List of text figures
- List of text tables
- List of figures in enclosures
- List of aerial photographs in enclosures
- List of photographs in enclosures
- List of aerial photographic surveys in enclosures
Chapter I. General information about mud volcanoes
1.1 A little about mud-volcano eruptions1.2 Use of terms
Chapter II. Classification of mud volcanoes and their interpretations
Chapter III. Results of field studies and interpretations of aerial phorograph and aerial survey data
3.1 Results of field studies of representative mud volcanoes3.2 Interpretation of data from remote sensing surveys
Chapter IV. Evaluation of parameters of mud-volcanic activity
4.1 Craters, and flows of mud-volcanic breccia4.2 Fractures, and zones of uplifts and subsidence4.3 Gas emissions from mud volcanoes4.4 Analysis of results of interpretation of satellite and aerial photography4.5 Results of radiometric studies4.6 Thermal fields on mud volcanoes
Chapter V. Periodicity of mud-volcano eruptions
5.1 Results of statistical analysis of data from mud volcano eruptions
Chapter VI. Possible hazards in areas of mud volcanoes
6.1 Danger from flows of mud-volcano breccia6.2 Possible hazards from various fractures on mud volcanoes6.3 Danger from gas emissions on mud volcanoes when developing areas where they occur
Complete list of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan
Calibrated Thermal Modeling and Fluid Inclusions Study: South Caspian Basin
- The executive companies: GIA / Exxon
- The year of publication: December 1996
- Code: -
- Volumes: total 1
volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1
Calibrated thermal models of the Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea were built in order to develop thermal boundary conditions for use in models in interested areas. Models are built on extensive geothermal data compiled by the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Siences (GIA). As part of this study we also evaluated the effect of sediment undecompaction on thermal histories.
Fluid inclusions in sandstones were examined to gain insight into the distribution and history of oil and gas in the basin. We constructed hydrocarbon yield models based on the thermal models to address the same question.
Our analyses indicate that the western South Caspian Basin is cold. Rapid recent sedimentation has driven the basin far from steady-state thermal conditions. In addition, little heat is fluxed into basin from the base of the sedimentary section, and the sediments generate low levels of radiogenic heat. Although undercompaction may reduce thermal conductivities by up to 20%, this effect is far overshadowed by non-steady-state thermal effects. These factors push the top of the oil window (based on maturities) to depths as great as 8000 m.
Interpreted low maturities throughout the Tertiary section preclude the generation of high-maturity gas (i.e. gas generated by cracking of oil) in that section. This interference combined with available data on gas geochemistry suggests that gas distribution is a source- related phenomenon. Fluid inclusions analyses offered no further constraints on this problem because hydrocarbon inclusions associated with the present basin system are absent.
Geothermal data provided by GIA include compilations of:
- Wellbore temperatures of shut-in exploration and production wells.
- Measurements of U, Th, and K concentrations of rock samples based omn spectral gamma ray data.
- Thermal conductivities.
We used these data in a 1-D compactoional burial and conductive heat flow model to calculate temperature histories; temperature data were used to calibrate the models. Published data on source rock character were used with the resulting temperature histories to calculate oil and gas yield histories for possible source intervals.
- Geothermal Data: S.Caspian Basin. Evaluation of GIA Data and Physical Insights
- Thermal Modeling of the S.Caspian Basin
- Overpressure Modeling of the S.Caspian Basin:
- Impact on Thermal Conductivities, Thermal States, and Maturation
- Source Yield Modeling - Implications for the Distribution of Hydrocarbon Types
- Appendix 1. Joint Study Agreement
- Appendix 2. Temperature Data
- Appendix 3. Radioactive Elements
- Appendix 4. Thermal Conductivity data
- Appendix 5. Stratigraphic Sections
- Appendix 6. Summary Plots of Burial, Thermal, Overpressure, and Hydrocarbon Yield Models
- Appendix 7. XRD Data of Shale Core Sample from Umid Structure
- Appendix 8. Preliminary Results of Fluid Inclusions Analyses from the South caspian Basin, Azerbaijan
Biostratigraphic and stratigraphic atlas of the Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary strata of Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin
- The executive companies: GIA / ARCO / Chevron /
Conoco / Mobil / Unocal
- The year of publication: March 1997
- Code: -
- Volumes: total 1
volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1
This report presents the results of a joint study between the Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences (GIA) and the BP and Statoil Alliance to investigate the remaining prospectivity within the essentially Pliocene "Productive Series" succession of Azerbaijan.
This study was conceived in early 1996, when there was a definite need for a document discussing the biostratigraphy and stratigraphy of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks of the South Caspian Basin. The last major work of this kind was published in the former Soviet Union more than 20 years ago. With ever increasing hydrocarbon exploration and development activity in onshore and offshore Azerbaijan and the surrounding Caspian area, there was opinion there could be offered important biostratigraphic and stratigraphic information which would be useful to the foreign oil campanies active in the region. A consortium of five companies (Arco, Chevron, Conoco, Mobil, and Unocal) supported this study, which lasted from May, 1996, to February, 1997.
There was decided to limit the stratigraphic coverage of this study to the Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary (Pleistocene). Each of the main suites, series, horizons, and beds which comprise this interval is discussed in the text and summarized in charts and text figures for various areas of Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin. Sources of information for this report inlcude previoulsy published articles by a variety of authors from our literature collection, our own previously published and unpublished work, and our microfossil analyses of a new sample set selected by the supported companies. The primary objectives of this study include: (1) biostratigraphic, stratigraphic, and chronostratigraphic information, data, and characterization of the units, including critical coments regarding reworked (recycled) fossil assemblages; (2) important fossil zonations; (3) correlations of Neogene units in Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea, and Turkmenistan; (4) paleoenvironmental discussions and paleogeographic reconstructions; and (5) photographic documentation (62 plates) illustrating the important fossil assemblages upon which much of this and other biostratigraphic work is based.
There are also included the microfossil analyses of a new sample set made available to and selected by the participating companies for this project. The sample are from cores of wells in the Absheron archipelago, Absheron sill, Baku archipelago, and Lower Kura petroleum province.
The primary microfossils discussed and illustrated in this study are calcareous nannofissils, ostracods, and foraminifera. Other fossil groups referenced and illustrated include mollusks (gastropods and pelecypods), diatoms, radiolarians, fish otoliths, charophyte algae, and palynomorphs (spores, pollen, and dinocysts). Sixty-two photographic plates have been assembled for reference. Lists are provided for all fossil included on the plates, organized by fossil groups and geologic periods.
In Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin, the lithostratigraphic unirs are typically reffered to in a variety of ways, including suites (e.g. Maykop suite), horizons (e.g. Chokrak Horizon), and beds (e.g. Aucelinian Beds). These terms had been retained in this Atlas because of their common usage throughout the literature. There was not attempts to replace them with the generally equivalent western lithostratigraphic terms of groups, formations, and members. the reader should also keep in mind that some chronostratigraphic stage names (e.g. Sarmatian, Meotian, Pontian) have been historically used in a lithostratigraphic sense in this region.
There also included a large regional map of the South Caspian Basin which shows thegeneral areas mentioned in the text (e.g. PriCaspian-Kuba area; Shemakha-Gobustan area). The approximate locations ofmost of the mentioned oil fields and structures, as well as villages and towns, are indicated by black dots.
Introduction (TAB 1)
Cretaceous (TAB 2)
Babadag SuiteKaytar SuiteKhalchay SuiteSeptarie SuiteKhanagin SuiteAltyagach SuiteKululin SandstoneAucelian Beds
Kemishdag SuiteZorat BedsKemchy SuiteYunusdag SuiteAgburun Suite
Cretaceous Text - figures (C1 - C4)
Paleogene (TAB 3)
IntroductionIlkhidag SuiteSumgait SuiteKoun Suite
Paleogene Text - figures (P1 - P3)
Neogene (TAB 4)
IntroductionGeneral OverviewMaykopian SuiteTarkhanian HorizonChokrakian HorizonKaraganian Horizon (Diatom Suite-D1)Konkian Horizon (Diatom Suite-D2)Sarmatian Stage (Diatom Suite-D3)Meotian Stage (Diatom Suite-D4)Pontian StageProductive SeriesAkchagagylian Suite
Neogene Text - figures (N1 - N9)
Neogene Charts (N1 - N3)
Quaternary (TAB 5)
Newly analyzed sample set (TAB 6)
IntroductionSample setCalcareous nannofossils analysesOstracods, foraminifera, misc.fossils analyses
Photographic plates of key fossils (TAB 7)
Cretaceous (Plates 1-5)
Lower CretaceousUpper Cretaceous
Paleogene (Plates 6-25)
PaleoceneLower EoceneMiddle EoceneUpper EoceneOligocene (Maykopian)
Neogene (Plates 26-54)
Miocene (Tarkhanian-Chokrakian)Miocene (Doiatom Suite)Miocene (Karaganian-Konkian)Miocene (Sarmatian)Miocene (Meotian)Miocene (Pontian)Productive SeriesUpper Miocene (Lower Productive Series)Lower Pliocene (Upper Productive Series)Upper Pliocene (Akchagylian)
Quaternary (Plates 55-62)
EoPleistocene (Apsheronian)Lower Pleistocene (Bakunian)
Calcareous nannofossilOstracodsForaminiferaOtolithsSpores and pollenDiatoms
References (TAB 8)