Ana Səhifə / Haqqımızda / Hesabatlar


Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of North-Eastern Azerbaijan

Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of North-Eastern Azerbaijan

  • The executive companies: GIA / First Exchange Corporation
  • The year of publication: March 1997
  • Code: FEC 3082
  • Volumes: total 2
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 2


Most of the geological studies so far carried out by western oil companies and consultancies have focused on either the highly prospective main Apsheron Trend or the Kura Basin. This study has concentrated on the area of Northeastern Azerbaijan and adjacent offshore area to the east of the Greater Caucasus, between the Apsheron Peninsular and the Dagestan Border. This area includes the Siazan producing oilfield and a large number of "prospective structures".

In this area hydrocarbons occur in a number of deeper horizons including the early Tertiary, Cretaceous and Jurassic. Little is presently available about the hydrocarbon potential of these deeper intervals, although a Pre-Pliocene Prospectivity Study previously carried out by the GIA in collaboration with the BP/Statoil Alliance (and now being marketed by First Exchange/GIA) has highlighted some of the potential. This report has built on that earlier work by incorporating new well and seismic data, extending the analysis of the reservoir potential of key outcrops, and providing detailed petrographic studies. The latter are based on the GIA core collection which contains the only remaining core samples in the area, supplemented by selected outcrop material. It includes full modal analysis, grain size distribution, diagenetic history and reservoir quality. In addition, geochemical modelling has been carried out in order to assess the maturation history of various potential source rocks. Also included in the study are published and unpublished Russian data on reservoir quality and on the exploration history of the fields and prospective structures.

These analyses have been been used to provide a classification of the main hydrocarbon plays and an initial assessment of the remaining potential.


  1. Well data from offshore and onshore fields including electric logs and cores.
  2. Descriptions of onshore outcrops in the Jurassic, Cretaceous and early Tertiary.
  3. Seismic data.
  4. Geochemical Data.
  5. Published and unpublished Russian data.


The report consists of two volumes:

Volume I (A4) Text and Appendices

Volume II (A3) Figures, Enclosures and Appendices

All figures and enclosures are in colour and available in digital form. All tables are available in digital form (Excel). All well logs have been digitised and are available in LAS format, as scans of the original Russian logs and as composite logs (1:500 scale).

  • Stratigraphic Correlations
  • Detailed petrographic studies of selected core and outcrop material (60 thin sections)
  • Outcrop descriptions and graphic logs (Early Tertiary to Mesozoic) with sedimentological and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation
  • Representative seismic sections (scanned and re-plotted)
  • Structure maps and cross sections
  • Geochemical modelling (Basinmod)
  • Synthesis of tectonic, stratigraphic and sedimentological evolution
  • Summary of available porosity and permeability data
  • Summary of all known hydrocarbon discoveries and ‘prospective structures’
  • Synthesis and evaluation of hydrocarbon prospectivity


This project is a joint study between the following organisations:




The main evaluation has been carried out by Dr. Colin Jonesof Collinson Jones Consulting Ltd (UK). For the past 9 years he has carried out a number of studies in the North Sea, the North Caucasus and Kazakhstan. Before that he was a Senior Geologist with BP and Britoil. The petrographic work has been carried out by Dr. Giancarlo Rizzi of Core Carbonates (UK). Geochemical modelling has been undertaken by OceanGrove Geoscience in Aberdeen and Geochem Group (Chester, UK) have undertaken a further oil analysis.

A number of geological specialists from the GIA (Sedimentary Geology, Geochemistry and Oil and Gas divisions) have also worked on the study or provided advice and expertise on the local geology, availability and interpretation of data, and logistical support in the field.


Executive Summary

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Scope and Aims of Study

1.2 Methodology

1.3 Personnel

1.4 Geography and Infrastructure

Chapter 2 Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution

2.1 Tectonic Elements and Structure: Onshore

2.2 Tectonic Elemts and Structure: Offshore

2.3 Stratigraphic Background

2.4 Mesozoic Stratigraphy and Tectonics

2.4.1 Lower - Middle Jurassic

Upper Jurassic

2.4.3 Latest Jurassic (Tithonian) to early Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian)

2.4.4 Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)

2.4.5 Upper Cretaceous

2.5 Tertiary (pre-Pliocene) Stratigraphy

2.5.1 Palaeocene (Sumgaiet Suite)

2.5.2 Eocene (Koun Suite)

2.5.3 Oligocene-Early Miocene (Maykop)

2.5.4 Middle Miocene (Spireilis Beds)

2.5.5 Miocene-Late Miocene (Diatom Suite)

2.5.6 Late Miocene (Pontian)

Chapter 3. Reservoir Geology


3.2 Sedimentology and Depositional Systems

3.2.1 Lower- Middle Jurassic

3.2.2 Upper Jurassic

3.2.3 Latest Jurassic (Tithonian) to early Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian)

3.2.4 Lower Cretaceous

3.2.5 Upper Cretaceous

3.2.6 Paleocene-Eocene

3.2.7 Oligocene-Early Miocene

3.2.8 Mid-Late Miocene

3.3 Petrography and Reservoir Quality

3.3.1 Jurassic

3.3.2 Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian- Hauterivian)

3.3.3 Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian)

3.3.4 Upper Cretaceous

3.3.5 Eocene

3.3.6 Oligocene

3.3.7 Miocene

3.4 Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 4. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Source Rocks and Maturity

4.3 Reservoirs and Seals

4.4 Prospectivity of the Precaspian-Guba Region

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Siazan Oilfield

4.4.3 Talaby Gaynarja Trend

4.4.4 Structural Highs

4.5 Prospectivity of the Mesozoic Fold Belt

4.6 Prospectivity of the Offshore Area (Pre-Productive Series)

4.7 Summary and Conclusions



(Volume I)

Appendix I Field Outcrop Data: Written Summaries

Appendix II Data on Fields and ‘Prospective Structures’

Appendix III Geochemical Data<

Appendix IV Porosity-Permeability Data

(Volume II)

AppendixV Geographical Location of Outcrop Sections, Petrography and Geochemistry Samples.

Appendix VI Petrographic Data: Modal Analysis, Grain Size and Porosity.

Appendix VII Composite Well Logs

1. Composite Well Log Agzibirchala # 1

2. Composite Well Log Yalama # 14

3. Composite Well Log Khudat # 5

4. Composite Well Log Gusary # 1

5. Composite Well Log Khachmas # 2

6. Composite Well Log Talaby # 14

7. Composite Well Log Zagly # 1253 (Siazan)

8. Composite Well Log Amirkhanly # 1547 (Siazan)

9. Composite Well Log Tekchay # 3

10. Composite Well Log Sitalchay # 3

11. Composite Well Log Shurabad # 14

12. Composite Well Log Gaynarja # 6

Appendix VIII Seismic Data

1. Seismic Shotpoint Map (Onshore)

2. Seismic Line 870708

3. Seismic Line 870208

4. Seismic Line 860108


1.1 Geography

2.1 Tectonic Elements

2.2 Top Mesozoic Structure Precaspian-Guba (Onshore)

2.3 Top Mesozoic Structure Precaspian-Guba (Offshore)

2.4 Structural Cross-Sections

2.5 Top Mesozoic Structure North Apsheron (Offshore)

2.6 Top Chokrakian Structure North Apsheron (Offshore)

2.7 Siazan Structural Cross-Sections

2.8 Main Stratigraphic Units (Mesozoic)

2.9 Correlation of Jurassic sequences in the subsurface

2.10 Main Stratigraphic Units (Tertiary)

3.1 Palaeogeography and Facies: Aalenian to Oxfordian

3.2 Palaeogeography and Facies: Kimmeridgian to Tithonian

3.3 Palaeogeography and Facies: Berriasian

3.4 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Valanginian

3.5 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Hauterivian

3.6 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Barremian

3.7 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Aptian

3.8 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Albian

3.9 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Cenomanian

3.10 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Turonian

3.11 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Coniacian

3.12 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Santonian

3.13 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Campanian

3.14 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Maastrichtian

3.15 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Danian

3.16 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Palaeocene/Eocene

3.17 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Maykopian

3.18 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Chokrakian

3.19 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Karaganian

3.20 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Konkian

3.21 Palaeogeography and Facies: Lower and Middle Sarmatian

3.22 Paleogeography, Facies and Isopach: Upper Sarmatian

3.23 Palaeogeography and Facies and Isopach: Pontian

4.1 Map of Producing Oilfields and ‘Prospective Structures’

4.2 Base Maikopian ApproximateDepth

4.3 Depth/Temperature Profile: Siazan Oilfield

4.4 Estimated Temperatures at 500 m

4.5 Estimated Temperatures at 3000 m

4.6 Maturation History: Yalama

4.7 Maturation History: Khachmas

4.8 Maturation History: Gaynarja

4.9 Maturation History: Offshore, East Apsheron Syncline

4.10 Main Hydrocarbon Plays


1. Geoseismic Sections (Offshore)

2. Field Section Correlation Panel (Onshore)

3. Jimichay (Lower-Middle Jurassic) Outcrop Data

4. Kudialchay Gorge (Jurassic-Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

5. Shurabad Village (Upper Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

6. Koun Series (Eocene): Khajy Zeynalabdin, Gobustan, Perekishkul. Outcrop Data

7. Altygach Village Area(Lower Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

8. Gizilgazy Valley (Upper Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

The Tectonic Development of the South Caspian Sea Basin

The Tectonic Development of the South Caspian Sea Basin

  • The executive companies: GIA / First Exchange Corporation
  • The year of publication: 1998
  • Code: FEC 3103
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1


FIRST EXCHANGE Corporation (FEC), in cooperation with the Geologic Institute of Azerbaijan (GIA), has compiled, translated, and edited all known, relevant, but previously difficult to find, Former Soviet Union (FSU) geologic and geophysical research regarding the complex tectonic evolution of the South Caspian Sea Basin.

Drilling and subsequent oil and gas production, in combination with regional and detailed geologic and geophysical research, has demonstrated an enormous hydrocarbon potential underlying the South Caspian Basin and surrounding region. Production, drilling, geologic mapping, outcrop study, seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, and magnetic surveys have the demonstrated potential of Jurassic to Quaternary reservoirs.

Beginning in the Early Jurassic and continuing into the Miocene, oil systems consisting of thick shale sequence source rocks and seals, and sandstone and carbonate reservoirs were deposited in a widespread extensional miogeoclinal basin at the south edge of the Eurasian plate. Extensive and complex regional Pliocene and Quaternary Alpine thrusting and folding, which continue at present day as demonstrated by Neotectonics, have been superimposed on previously existing structures with hydrocarbon potential. Late Alpine orogenic tectonic compression has created more than 1000 anticlines but less than 150 have been explored. In addition, very little of the stratigraphic trap potential has been tested.

Approximately 75 summaries and 450 figures provide easy access to the wealth of information on the complex tectonics and structure summarized in the report sections on regional tectonic elements, crustal structure, Phanerozoic regional and basin geology, modern tectonism and plate tectonics. Summary information regarding the geologic and geophysical information on the tectonic evolution of oil systems in the South Caspian Basin will facilitate the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential in the region.

The South Caspian Sea Basin Tectonic Atlas Table of Contents is presented below.


Chapter 1: General Introduction

  • The Position of Causasus in the Alpine belt
  • The fault tectonics of the South Caspian
  • Composite stratigraphic sections
  • Paleomagnetics (general)
  • Geomorphology
  • Mud volcanoes
  • Neotectonics (general)
  • Lineament Tectonics (general)
  • Seismology (general)
  • Gravity/Magnetic fields (general)
  • Heat flows and temperatures (general)
  • Seismic and Density profiles (general)
  • Structural and Thickness maps of earth crust layers (general)
  • Tectonics of Azerbaijan (general)

    Chapter 2: Regional

    • Great Caucasus
    • Lesser Caucasus
    • Talysh
    • Elburs
    • Kopetdag and Balkhan
    • Middle Caspian Subbasin
    • Kurian Subbasin
    • Central South Caspian Subbasin
    • West Turkmenistan Subbasin

    Chapter 3: Geosyncline Conceptions

    • Magmatism and Deep Structure
    • Seismotectonics
    • Evolution of the South Caspian Basin
    • Shalpo’s Sedimentation Notes and Paleotectonics Profiles
    • Lithostratigraphic Correlations

    Chapter 4:

    • Plate Tectonics Conceptions
    • Various Authors Discussion

    Chapter 5:

    • References


    The report consists of 155 plates and accompanying abstracts. The compilation utilizes approximately 120 references out of 300 that were closely examined. Most plates consist of interpreted figures and summary text.

    There is available additional underlying Russian text (available for review). The GIA can also allow participants access to original Russian documents during pre-arranged appointments and by paying daily consulting charges.

Regional Tectonic Features of the Middle Kura Depression

Regional Tectonic Features of the Middle Kura Depression

  • The executive companies: GIA / First Exchange Corporation
  • The year of publication: 2000
  • Code: FEC 3136
  • Volumes: total 2
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 2


Middle Kura Regional Tectonic Study, Vol.1 (Geophysical Fields and Paramaters),
Vol.2 (Geological Interpretations)

Productive Series (Middle Pliocene) widely developed in offshore Azerbaijan and adjacent onshore parts is the main petroleum-bearing suite in the region.

As to older deposits, they are prospective in the Yevlakh-Agjabedi trough. Ecomonical oil-gas content in the area has been proved already. Oil pools in the deposits of wide stratigraphic range (Akchagylian, Sarmatian, Chokrakian, Maikopian, Eocenian, and Upper Cretaceous) have been developed for an extensive period.

The region is characterized by the complicated tectonic structure, presence of some structural levels, unconformable structural layout, presence of hiatuses in sedimentation, intense dislocation of the deposits, occurrence of magmatic volcanism in the past and so on. All these created specific settings for petroleum formation and accumulation processes, development of various type traps for oil and gas including those having reservoir confined to eroded surface of effusive rocks.

In connection with the above stated, effectiveness of exploration works in the area is not sufficiently high.

To date over 60 structures were discovered within the Yevlakh-Agjabedi trough, for only 15 structures either economical oil and gas content was proved or economical oil inflow discovered.

One of the methods of raising effectiveness of petroleum exploration is a detailed study of peculiarities of regional structure of the Middle Kura depression based on the integrated reivew of all geophysical exploration methods and interpretation o their results with regard to drilling data.

Just to cover this problem this problem the Atlas is published. It includes two volumes. In the first volume, the following regional geophysical parameters are indicated:

  • Magnetic
  • Electric
  • Gravity
  • Seismic
  • Radioactivity
  • Thermal

At the same time this volume contains the study results of regional gas geochemical field of near-surface deposits.

The second volume
 contains the results of geological interpretation of geophysical fields. These studies are reflected as a series of regional structural maps on the surface of individual stratigraphic units (Miocene, Maikop, Eocene, Cretaceous), regional geological-cross-sections, regional well log correlation, regional lithofacial maps, regional thickness maps of separate stratigraphic units.

All these graphic materials are accompanied by the explanatory text. Finally, conclusions reflecting the author’s position on prospective and future directions for the search of new economical hydrocarbon accumulations are presented.

Geophysical fields (gravitational, seismic, electromagnetic, thermal, radioactive) of the Middle Kura depression are available to illustrate the regional tectonic study.

Geological Evaluation of the South Caspian Basin, Using 2-D Basin Modeling Software (SIGMA-2D) (not for sale)

Geological Evaluation of the South Caspian Basin, Using 2-D Basin Modeling Software (SIGMA-2D) (not for sale)

  • The executive companies: GIA / Japan National Oil Company
  • The year of publication: October 2001
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 2


Japan National Oil Company (JNOC) jointly with Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (GIA) intended to initiate the Basin Modeling Study in order to reevaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the region by using our own simulation software called as SIGMA-2D. This internal report is aimed at reviewing the hydrocarbon potential in the South Caspian Basin anf giving the future perspectives in this region. This study mainly covers the following subjects:

Japan National Oil Company (JNOC) jointly with Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (GIA) intended to initiate the Basin Modeling Study in order to reevaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the region by using our own simulation software called as SIGMA-2D. This internal report is aimed at reviewing the hydrocarbon potential in the South Caspian Basin anf giving the future perspectives in this region. This study mainly covers the following subjects:

The present report includes Regional Geology, Seismic Interpretation, Basin Modeling by SIGMA-2D, Input Parameters for SIGMA-2D as well as Basin Modeling Results: Burial History, Formation Temperature Calibration and Prediction, Pore Pressure Calibartion and Prediction, Source Rock Maturity Modeling, Hydrocarbon Generation Modeling, Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation Modeling.


1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction

3. Regional Geology

3.1 Tectonic Setting3.2 Basement Rocks of the South Caspian Basin3.3 Plate Reconstruction of the South Caspian Basin3.4 Stratigraphy3.4.1. Basements3.4.2. Oligocene3.4.3. Miocene to Pliocene3.4.4. Pleistocene to Holocene3.5. Petroleum Geology3.5.1. Source Rocks3.5.2. Reservoir Rocks

4. Seismic Interpretation

4.1. Seismic Data4.1.1. Seismic Data Utilized in This Study4.1.2. Data Quality of Seimic Data4.2. Preparation of Submarine Topographical Map4.2.1. General Features4.2.2. Licensing / Rightholding Blocks4.3. Interpretation of Seismic Data4.3.1. Seismic Resolution4.3.2. Interpreted Horizon4.3.3. Interpretation Results4.3.4. Depth Conversion4.4. Explored Structures4.4.1. Nakhchevan Field4.4.2. Neft Dashlari Field4.4.3. Guneshli / Chirag / Azeri Fields4.4.4. Kapaz Field4.4.5. Tegiev Zeinalabdin Structure4.4.6. Shah Deniz Field4.4.7. Umid Structure4.4.8. Inam Structure4.4.9. Kurdashi and Araz Deniz Structures4.4.10. Talysh Deniz Structure4.5. Unexplored Prospects and Leads4.5.1. Nakhchevan Lead4.5.2. Yanan Tava and Atashkakh Leads4.5.3. Satalyn Block4.5.4. Eastern Outside of Inam Block4.5.5. Lerik Deniz, Dalga, Janub & Savalan Block4.5.6. C Memmedguluzade Lead (D8, 10 Block)4.5.7. Verizov Lead (Zafar & Mashar Block)4.5.8. Alov, Araz & Sharg Block4.5.9. Cobanzade Lead

5. Basin Modeling by SIGMA-2D

5.1. Petroluem Geology5.1.1. Oil and Gas Fields in the South Caspian Basin5.1.2. Source Rock5.1.3. Reservoir Rocks5.1.4. Seal Rock5.2. Well Log Data Analyses5.2.1. Horizon Setting5.2.2. Sand Ratio Map5.2.3. Sand Distribution and Paleo-Delta System5.3. Petroluem Geochemistry5.3.1. Source Rock Potential

  • Maykop Formation
  • Diatom Formation

5.3.2. Oil-Source Rock Correlation5.3.3. Source Rock Maturity5.3.4. Crude Oil-Source Rock Correlation5.4. Basin MOdeling by SIGMA-2D5.4.1. Role of Basin Modeling in Exploration Work5.4.2. Outline of SIGMA-2D5.4.3. Modeling Lines5.5. Input Parameters for SIGMA-2D5.5.1. Stratigraphy5.5.2. Thermal History5.5.3. Lithology5.5.4. Source Rock Potential5.5.5. Fluid Properties5.6 Basin Modling Results5.6.1. Burial History5.6.2. Formation Temperature Calibration and Prediction5.6.3. Pore Pressure Calibration and Prediction5.6.4. Source Rock Maturity Modeling5.6.5. Hydrocarbon Generation Modeling5.6.6. Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation ModelingPetroleum System

6. Conclusion



List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Enclosures