Geology


Tectonics


Azerbaijan tectonics and neotectonics


At present a significant actual material dealing with tectonics and neotectonics of Azerbaijan has been accumulated. A recent tectonic structure of mountain zones of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh, Nakhchyvan; deep structure of intermountain and marginal depressions, structure of Pre-Alpine basement and sedimentary cover was studied.


Important results were obtained by such issues as fold-ruptured deformations, non-root tectonic structures, interaction of seismicity with newest and recent movements of the earth crust.


On the base of geology-geophysical materials rate of sedimentation of sedimentary formations on the tectonic stage were determined. Regional seismicity of Azerbaijan due to tectonic activity of the central segment of Alpine-Himalayan belt was studied; quantitative assessment of tectonic movements on the late-orogenic stage (Late Miocene-Quaternary period) was given. Some peculiarities of time-spatial distribution of mud volcanism and its link with geodynamic processes were revealed.


Conclusions of thematic studies were reflected on the tectonic and neotectonic maps published in 1980 and 1991.


One can consider, that at present tectonic and neotectonic zoning was carried out at the same time distinguishing large zones with different geodynamic regime of development at the Alpine stage. It had been established, that in the tectonic structure of Azerbaijan together with longitudinal deep faults the basic role play cross deep faults (NE-SW, submeridian direction). Cross deep faults were reflected on the Pre-Alpine basement, which consists of horsts and grabens alternating between each other gradually subsiding from the west to the east. The structure of basement is expressed in the structure of the sedimentary complex of Mesozoic-Cenozoic-formation zones and in some other peculiarities.


Among the conducted there was conducted not only geology-geophysical data but remote, geodetic, seismologic, geomorphologic as well.


For the last years on the base of new technologies data for recent geodynamics of the earth crust aimed at determination not only vertical but horizontal constituents of tectonic movements is used. It allows revealing zones of the increased tension of the Earth crust that presents much interest for solution of problem of the earthquake prediction.


One should take into account the compiled (2002) tectonic amp of the Caspian Sea and its continental framing (from the series of amps of internal and marginal seas) with explanatory note enclosed to it. These studies were carried out jointly with Institute of Lithosphere of Russian Academy of Sciences.


According to international project series of maps (for the whole Phanerozoic by stages) of lithofacies and thickness of Azerbaijan territory was completed. All these maps were included into atlas of lithology-paleogeographic structural, palinspatic and geoecological maps of the Central Eurasia with a scale 1:2500.000 which was presented on the International geological Congress in Brasilia in 2000. Materials generalized in that atlas is of great theoretical and practical importance for Azerbaijan.


At present a new tectonic map on the geodynamic base which will be principally differ from the previous publications of theoretical maps (1958, 1980) both by methodic of compilation and saturation with newest actual data is being compiled.


Works of V.E.Khain, V.V.Belousov, Yu.V. Pusharovski, L.P. Zonenshain, E. Sh. Shikhalibeyli as well as fundamental theory of tectonics of lithosphere plates and their numerous followers were used as basic sources by the newest actual data, newest tectonics and recent tectonic movements.