Joint reports

Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan

  • The executive companies: Geology Institute
  • The year of publication: March 1994
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 4
     volumes with appendixes in same amount: 3


Azerbaijan contains numerous mud volcanoes which emit breccias, water, gas and oil films. The study of mud volcano emissions yields useful imformation about sedimentary deposits at the depths which are not available from conventional drilling.

The proposed report contains the results of new research compiled by a team of scientists in the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences and the BP/Statoil Alliance. This research describes 16 typical mud volcanoes from three oil-gas regions: Shemakha-Gobustan, Lower Kura and Apsheron. The report consists of four volumes and contains:

General information regarding mud volcano evolution including:

  • recent maps of mud volcano activity in Azerbaijan (onshore and offshore) constructed on topographical, geological and tectonic bases corrected with the use of satellite imagery;
  • maps of heat flow distribution in Azerbaijan prepared from satellite surveys through time;
  • regional tectonic profiles illustrating the structure of mud volcano areas;

complex data on each of the 16 mud volcanoes, including the information on geomorphology, tectonic structure, geological situation, temperature regime, the results of isotope and geochemical research of gas, oil, water and organic matter, and the mineralogical-geochemical analysis of breccias.

The report is well illustrated by coloured photos of the studied mud volcanoes.


(i) Preface
(ii) List of Contents


1.1 The Importance of Studying Mud Volcanoes
1.2 World Wide Occurrence of Mud Volcanoes
1.3 Geology and Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan
1.4 Classification of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes
1.5 Methods of Investigation


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Demirchi
2.3 Matrasa
2.4 Charagan
2.5 Melikchobanly
2.6 Kyrlykh (Geilyarsk)
2.7 Shikhzairly
2.8 Pirekeshkyul
2.9 Cheildag
2.10 Airantekyan
2.11 Dashgil
2.12 Bahar
2.13 Akhtarmaady
2.14 Akhtarma Pashaly
2.15 Kyrlykh Kharaminsk
2.16 Lake Kyrlykh
2.17 Shorbulag
2.18 Lokbatan
2.19 Angecharan reservoir outcrop section


3.1 Summary
3.2 Introduction
3.3 Analysis of Data
3.4 Interpretation of Thermal Data
3.5 Concluding Remarks
3.6 References


4.1 Origin of Mud Volcanoes
4.2 Origin of Oil and Gas Seepage from Mud Volcanoes
4.3 Oil-Source Rock Correlations
4.4 Mud Volcano Waters
4.5 Concluding Remarks


1.1 A Review of Mud Volcanism / World Mud Volcanoes Databank
1.2 Catalogue of Recorded Mud Volcano Eruptions in Azerbaijan, 1810 - 1992
1.3 All about Mud Volcanoes a Draft Version, Excluding Illustrations, of a Laymans Guide
1.4 Key Papers, Including English Translations, on Mud Volcanism and the Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan
1.5 Field Guide for the 1992 Expedition to Investigate the Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan


2.1  Geological Characteristics of Regions of Mud Volcano Development in Azerbaijan
2.2  Tectonics of the Area of Mud Volcano Development in Azerbaijan
2.3  Explanatory Note to the Map of Mud Volcanoes in the South Caspian Sea
2.4  Classification of Mud Volcanoes and Their Eruptions
2.5  Description of 17 Studied Mud Volcanoes
2.6  Biostratigraphic Results
2.7  Characteristics of the Rocks - Age and Lithology
2.8  Lithological and Mineralogical Study of Material Erupted from Mud Volcanoes
2.9  Results of XRD Studies of Samples of Breccia from Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan
2.10 Results of DTA of Clays from Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan
2.11 Thermal Characteristics of Mud Volcanoes
2.12 Satellite Thermal - Calibration Data
2.13 Structural Interpretation of Satellite Images of Zones of Mud Volcanoes and Analysis of Mud Volcano Distribution on the Basis of Satellite


3.1  Geochemical Study of Organic Matter in Rocks Erupted from Mud Volcanoes
3.2  Brief geochemical Description of the Oils of Azerbaijan
3.3  Carbon Isotopes of Oils
3.4  Geochemical Composition of Oils from Mud Volcanoes in Azerbaijan from Infra Red Spectroscopy Data
3.5  Carbon dioxide in Mud Volcano Gases
3.6  Description of mud volcano waters
3.7  Mud Volcano Project - Preliminary Geochemical Data for Oils, Source Rocks and Gases (Samples Collected October 1992)
3.8  List of Samples Collected and Analysed
3.9  Geochemical Analysis of Outcrops, Oil Seeps and Gases from Mud Volcanoes, Azerbaijan
3.10 Geochemical Data for Thirteen Oils from Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkmenia